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Bob Marley

Bob Marley

Bob Marley during a concert in the Hallenstadion in ZurichRobert Nesta Marley, Bob Marley said, born on 6 February 1945 in Nine Miles , St. Ann parish in Jamaica , died on 11 May 1981 at Miami ( Florida ), the United States , was a singer and songwriter performer of reggae music of Jamaica .

Bob Marley met his lifetime a worldwide success, and remains to this day the musician best known and most revered reggae, while being regarded as one who helped the Jamaican music and movement Rastafarian experiencing a global audience . Bob Marley has sold over 200 million records worldwide (it is the largest seller of records reggae history).

Biography
Robert Nesta Marley was born on 6 February 1945 (date on his passport but not officially confirmed as the government of Jamaica can not give birth) at Rhoden Hall near Nine Miles in the parish of St. Ann ( Jamaica ). He died May 11, 1981 of a generalized cancer, a tumor in the left foot spotted after an accident during a football game with friends (her doctors offer him repeatedly that he will refuse the amputation). Bob Marley was born to a black Jamaican mother aged 17 years, Cedella Marley Booker, Malcolm born , and a white father from England, supervisor of field work horse and a man in his fifties, Norval Marley, he has very little known. Norval Marley’s parents refused to accept apparently not his affair with a black woman, and Norval, described by Cedella like a nice man, but of weak character, was rejected by his family.

Bob Marley suffers from the absence of his father, who brought to the capital to study when he was five or six years. No news, his mother found months later on a street in Kingston , his son had been entrusted to an old lady, for whom he was running errands. Cedella Norval sees one last time and takes her child.

Period ska
As a teenager, Marley left the poverty of the countryside to the ghetto Trenchtown to Kingston . There he met Neville Livingston said Bunny Wailer and Winston Hubert McIntosh says Peter Tosh , with whom he sang hymns and the success of American soul music they hear on the radio in Miami. The singer Joe Higgs gives voice lessons. Bob Marley recorded his first song Judge Not for producer Leslie Kong label Beverley’s in 1962 at the age of 17 years and a resumption of a successful country and western music by Claude Gray: One Cup of Coffee in 1962 . These securities have no success ska but Bob continues to invest in music.

In 1963 he formed with Junior Braithwaite, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer vocal group The Wailers (the gĂ©misseurs). They get a contract with Studio One in 1964 and their first tracks of ska, gospel, rhythm and blues and soul are produced by the large local producer Clement “Sir Coxsone” Dodd , who was assistant to the studio “Scratch” Perry (Scratch also promotes). Bob leaves his job as a welder. After the album called The Wailin ‘Wailers, the band separates from Coxsone, who do not pay them much in return for tens of securities they have registered for it (with several successes, such as Simmer Down and Put it On ).

Period Rocksteady
After his marriage to Rita Anderson early 1966 , Bob Marley left to join his mother married a Jamaican named Booker in Wilmington, Delaware, USA . Bob works at the Hotel Dupont, but continues to write songs. It is temporarily replaced by Constantine “Dream” Walker. On his return after the summer 1966 , he became more and more movement Rastafarian , who emerged in the 1930s in Jamaica and founded with Peter Tosh and Bunny Livingston Wail’n Soul’m independent label. Self-produced their first title in the new style called rocksteady Bend Down Low.

At Kingston is Mortimer Planno , a Cuban-born Jamaican Rastafarian who has traveled to Ethiopia and met Haile Selassie I in the early 1960s, which transmits part of Rastafarian culture. Without the support of a professional distributor, its records sold poorly, and Bob Marley is too poor to live in town with his wife Rita and two children Ziggy and Cedella. He returns to his hometown in 1967 for a spiritual renewal, but continues to record and publish some 45 laps for his small dark mark Wail’n Soul’m, such as hypocrites and future classics Nice Time emerging as the Bob Marley & the Wailers.

Rita, Bob Marley and Peter Tosh meet in January 1968 the American singer Johnny Nash , who has decided to launch the rocksteady style to the United States , and his manager Danny Sims, with whom they signed a contract for hard exclusive international editions and JAD . Bob Marley provides quantity of original compositions, including Stir It Up, which will soon become a success for Nash. Johnny Nash has a lot of success with the rocksteady (tube American “Hold Me Tight” in 1968), but the album by Bob Marley & the Wailers he financed does not come out (it will be finally published in 1997 in JAD). Only a new version of Bend Down Low with U.S. brass added to New York was released in France and Canada (JAD-CBS) in 1968, but without any success. Bob Marley wrote his first song together rasta, Selassie Is the Chapel in 1968 . This important recording in the style nyabinghi (Rastafarian drums), is funded by Mortimer Planno, who interprets the B side, A Little Prayer. Some local producers come and go, but the vocal trio has no more success since leaving the bosom of Coxsone Dodd.

Reggae
Without resources, Bob Marley went back to the United States to join his mother in 1969 . He worked several months at night in a car factory Chrysler . His wife and children join them. Upon his return, he founded Tuff Gong disks, named after its nickname of the ghetto (derived from the nickname of Leonard Howell, the “Gong founder of Rastafari ), and recorded a cover of James Brown (Say It Loud) I ‘ m Black and I’m Proud renamed Black Progress in the new reggae style with brilliant young musicians, the brothers Carlton (drums) and Aston “Family Man” Barrett (bass) who left him. But independent labels Tuff Gong still have no success. Marley goes to see his old friend Lee “Scratch” Perry in late 1969 went to England to sing accompanied by the Barrett brothers under the name of the Upsetters. Perry was awarded a British success with the instrumental The Return of Django and agrees to produce the vocal trio Bob Marley & the Wailers. They will work together until 1978. Perry gives a new color to the group, which recorded several masterpieces with him, which Duppy Conqueror, Sun Is Shining, Soul Rebel, Kaya and (I’ve Gotta) Keep on Moving by Curtis Mayfield. It will bring together some of the 45 laps on the album Soul Rebels released in England in 1973 at Trojan.

Without success, Bob Marley & the Wailers engrave a dozen songs with the music team of Leslie Kong , a Jamaican producer (Kong had already produced the first two 45s solo Bob Marley in 1962 ) that is successful in England through a professional sound that can penetrate the British market (Trojan records in London). It will publish those titles in 1971 under the name The Best of the Wailers. Bunny Wailer, superstitious, thinks that their “best” is yet to come and throws him a curse. Leslie Kong died shortly after a heart attack, and the trio receives no money. Bob Marley Rasta raproche the organization of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, founded by the Prophet Gad, aka Vernon Carrington . They continue to alternate self-productions Tuff Gong sessions and financed by Lee “Scratch” Perry’s Upsetter mark. Despite the quality of their prolific work, they have no local success to their own production Trench Town Rock (Tuff Gong 1971).

At the request of Johnny Nash seeking compositions for the band’s Swedish film Vil Garna Tro Her (Love is not a game) in which he plays the lead role, Bob Marley moved to Stockholm in 1971 . He wrote several songs, and collaborated on the film strip. Nash then signed with CBS records in London where he recorded the biggest hit of his career, I Can See Clearly Now. Marley joined him, and also sign with CBS thanks to Nash and his manager, with whom he is still under contract. As the album Nash, 45 laps Reggae on Broadway released in 1972 , but Bob Marley did not succeed. Sound and English musicians made by Nash does not suit him. Some concerts in London with the Barrett brothers are organized in part to Nash, but without success. Nash leaves for the glory and abandons her foal. Marley then contact Chris Blackwell , founder of the Trojan label and Island Records . Blackwell is Jamaican, has already distributed in England disks Leslie Kong’s Beverley, and knows the name Marley. He bought the production contract to Danny Sims, and entrusts money to Bob Marley, which starts recording at Kingston . At this turning point in his career, Bob Marley has already contributed to at least 350 songs recorded in a studio (with about thirty as a backup singer), much of which will be revealed to the international audience as very late, long after his death , including the series of ten CDs The Complete Bob Marley & the Wailers 1967 to 1972 (JAD) conducted between 1998 and 2003 by French Bruno Blum and the American Roger Steffens. Marley then reregister some of these compositions, Satisfy My Soul, Sun Is Shining or Lively Up Yourself.

 
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